Buckhurst Park Properties MangalLtd.
United Kingdom company law — The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act Also governed by the Insolvency Actthe UK Corporate Governance Code, European Union Directives and court cases, the company is the primary legal vehicle to organise and run business.
Tracing their modern history to the late Industrial Revolution, public companies now employ more people, Company law, or corporate law, can be broken down into two main fields. Corporate governance in the UK mediates the rights and duties among shareholders, employees, since the board of directors habitually possesses the power to manage the business under a company constitution, a central theme is what mechanisms exist to ensure directors accountability.
UK law is shareholder friendly in that shareholders, to the exclusion of employees, the general meeting holds a series of minimum rights to change the company constitution, issue resolutions and remove members of the board.
In turn, directors owe a set of duties to their companies, Directors must carry out their responsibilities with competence, in good faith and undivided loyalty to the enterprise.
If the mechanisms of voting do not prove enough, particularly for minority shareholders, directors duties, of central importance in public and listed companies is the securities market, typified by the London Stock Exchange.
Through the Takeover Code the UK strongly protects the right of shareholders to be treated equally and freely trade their shares, Corporate finance concerns the two money raising options for limited companies. Equity finance involves the method of issuing shares to build up a companys capital.
Debt finance means getting loans, usually for the price of an annual interest repayment. Creditors are also, to some extent, protected by courts power to set aside unfair transactions before a company goes under, if a company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, UK insolvency law requires an administrator to attempt a rescue of the company.
If rescue proves impossible, a companys life ends when its assets are liquidated, distributed to creditors, if a company becomes insolvent with no assets it can be wound up by a creditor, for a fee, or more commonly by the tax creditor.
Company law in its modern shape dates from the midth century, in medieval times traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed that a partnership arose, early guilds and livery companies were also often involved in the regulation of competition between traders.
As England sought to build a mercantile Empire, the government created corporations under a Royal Charter or an Act of Parliament with the grant of a monopoly over a specified territory, the best known example, established inwas the British East India Company.
Queen Elizabeth I granted it the right to trade with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope. Corporations at this time would act on the governments behalf. A similar chartered company, the South Sea Company, was established in to trade in the Spanish South American colonies, in fact the Spanish remained hostile and let only one ship a year enter 2.
Architecture — Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols.
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, science, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level.
The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation — firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability — a building should stand up robustly, utility — it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used.
Beauty — it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible.
Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture.
The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.(Freeman & Lockyer (A Firm) v Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal) Ltd and Another., ) Criticism Of The Above Statement It is true that actual authority and apparent authority are quite independent of .
Judgment: DIPLOCK LJ: It is necessary at the outset to distinguish between an "actual" authority of an agent on the one hand, and an "apparent" or "ostensible" authority on the other. Jun 30, · Freeman and Lockyer v. Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal), Ltd.
 1 All E.R. The defendant company appealed against an order of His Honour JUDGE HERBERT, Q.C., made on May 2, , ordering that the plaintiffs recover from the .
Freeman and Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties  Facts. One director of a Buckhurst, its agent, commissioned Freeman and Lockyer as architects for their Buckhurst Park Estate project. Jul 05, · Freeman and Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal) Ltd  2 QB is a UK company law case, concerning the enforceability of obligations against a company.
Freeman and Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal) Ltd  2 QB is a UK company law case, concerning the enforceability of obligations against a company.